Monday, July 5, 2021

Vaccines and the Heart

There has been considerable discussion in the media and medical journals about possible heart damage in young males who received the m-RNA vaccines against COVID-19. While we do not yet know enough to make absolute pronouncements, we are learning quite a bit and can make some informed decisions.

Some facts:

1.Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart, occurs from many causes, including COVID-19 infection itself. Some 1% of athletes who had mild COVID infections had evidence of heart inflammation when carefully studied, though most of them had no symptoms.

2.The “normal” occurrence of myocarditis in the U.S is about 10 cases/100,000 people/year. Based on studies in Israel and the U.S. military, the incidence in young adults receiving 2 doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines was several times higher than would be expected, albeit still rare. In the U.S. military, 23 cases were reported after 2.8 million does had been given. The CDC reported 196 cases among young adults, 16-24, when 27,000,000 vaccine doses had been given to this age group.

3.To date, most of the reported cases have occurred in adolescent or young adult males and almost all were soon (less than a week) after the second dose of vaccine.

4.Symptoms included chest pain, and most had some combination of elevated enzymes showing heart muscle damage, minor ECG abnormalities and abnormal heart scans. Virtually all the reported patients had mild illness, with good recovery in about 4 days with a variety of treatments or with no treatment.

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice has strongly advocated that the vaccines’ benefits for adolescent males exceed their risk, and this is probably true. The benefits of vaccination do outweigh the risk, even in this select group, but how vaccination is done can take the myocarditis risk into account.

One could argue that healthy young males might prefer to receive the J&J one-shot vaccine, in which this condition has not been reported. I would also argue that young males who have recovered from COVID-19 could be considered safely immune after a single rather than both doses of the m-RNA vaccine and thus avoid the second dose that seems to be the trigger.

Stay tuned. I am sure we will learn more.

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